How VW Paid $25 Billion for ‘Dieselgate’ — and Got Off Easy

In 2011, the cheating spread to a third VW brand in another city, seemingly creating still more opportunities for word to leak up to executives. VW had just acquired Porsche, and Porsche engineers in Stuttgart sought to adapt Audi's 3.0-liter diesel engine for use in a Porsche Cayenne SUV for the U.S. …